撰文:陳彥尹

攝影:莎拉・希爾頓 Sara Hylton

 

今年七月,印度總統大選推選出史上第二位達利特(又稱賤民)出身的總統拉姆・納特・柯文德(Ram Nath Kovind),可謂少數中的少數,再度引發印度與國際媒體關注。千年來,印度教傳統的種姓制度將人類分為數個階級、規範相對應的職業,如:教師、農夫、商人等;卻有另一群人,永遠在階級底層徘徊,做著清掃垃圾、排泄物與屍體這類多數人避之唯恐不及的工作,他們就是所謂的達利特(Dalit,梵文為被壓迫、殘破之意)。自印度脫離英國獨立以降,於1950年頒布的憲法中,就保障了印度國民不論種姓、性別等等都是自由而平等的,憲法廢除種姓歧視的習俗——比如舊時將達利特視為骯髒的「不可觸碰者」(untouchable),甚至規定政府和教育機構要保留一定比例的達利特名額。60多年過去了,印度經濟成長一日千里、躋身金磚四國之列、甚至已擁有核武,國力今非昔比;但,流傳數百年之久的種姓觀念根深蒂固,這些保障達利特人權的現代法令,鮮少落實。印度境內人數約1.7億的達利特(約佔總人口17%) 彷彿與國家發展完全脫節,依然飽受歧視眼光和犯罪騷擾,在社會邊緣苟延殘喘;許多達利特家庭無法負擔子女的教育費用,代代陷入貧窮無法翻身。

攝影師莎拉・希爾頓2010年第一次到印度,在路邊看到幾位婦女在垃圾堆裡拾荒,當時她大惑不解,四處詢問為何有這許多人拾荒?得到的答案卻是:這些達利特婦女原本就被一般人當作垃圾一樣,不被當人看。莎拉・希爾頓震驚之下,決定深入了解這個被社會忽視的族群。一向關心國際議題與婦女權益的她,此後經常前往印度與南亞地區採訪,2016年,印度的達利特人權組織NCDHR(National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights)與她合作,她花了兩個月走訪印度、尼泊爾與斯里蘭卡的達利特村落,接觸形形色色的達利特族群,採訪他們的生命故事、記錄他們的喜怒哀樂。其中,不少達利特社群相互扶持,在惡劣的處境中努力求生,堅忍不拔的精神也讓希爾頓十分感動。

在印度社會裡,達利特婦女往往是最弱勢的一群,面臨階級與性別歧視、虐待甚至性侵的威脅。透過希爾頓的鏡頭,我們得以看見隱藏在社會底層掙扎的真實面貌。儘管許多婦女境遇悲慘、聞之令人鼻酸,希爾頓表示,她想要呈現這些婦女充滿人性的一面:「我不想把被攝者拍成淒慘無比、毫無尊嚴的模樣,很多攝影師會著重這種面向,但我想將心比心,好好認識這些人,傾聽她們的故事、她們對未來懷抱的希望和夢想是什麼,很多達利特可能一輩子沒有機會向外人講這些事情, 有時我覺得自己好像也帶給她們一點點安慰。」

近年來,印度與國際上為達利特人權發聲的組織逐漸增加,鼓吹自由平等的社會運動在網路時代開始成長,不過,高低種姓之間的權力鴻溝與貧富差距,依舊難以跨越。對散佈印度各地的達利特民眾而言,未來想要被印度社會接納、受到平等待遇,還有一段漫長艱辛的路要走。

 

Dec. 19 2016 - Parvaliya Devi, 27 works at a brick factory near the village of Kusmahi, Jaharkhand. Employees at the factory, all Dalits, are paid depending on production rates and are meant to receive 500 rupees per 1000 bricks. However, employees reported receiving only 500 rupees per week, approximately $7.32 USD, and they were often not paid on time. This wage does not even meeting the minimum set by the government of 167 rupees per day.

帕婓莉亞・黛薇(Parvaliya Devi)在印度賈坎德邦一間製磚工廠上班,廠內全部雇用達利特員工,每人每做1000塊磚頭的工資訂為500盧比;但不少員工反應,實際上每週工作總共才拿到500盧比,折合僅為7.32美金(約為臺幣220元),遠比法定最低工資——每日167盧比還要低,工廠也常積欠薪水,工作環境十分惡劣。

 

 

Dalit women carry grass through the village of Nagarkot, Nepal.

在尼泊爾的納格爾果得(Nagarkot),幾位達利特婦女揹著大捆大捆餵牛用的乾草走回村莊。

 

 

Dec. 5 2016 - Houses, also known as “line rooms,” are seen on the Alton estate in the Nuwara Eliya district of Sri Lanka. These two room, barrack style homes were built over a century ago during British rule and continue to house plantation workers often across generations. It is estimated that more than 800,000 people are living on plantations across Sri Lanka.

斯里蘭卡中部的努瓦拉埃利雅區有不少稱作「線屋」的房子,這些建築物多半只有兩個房間,造型簡陋有如營房,是超過百年前英國殖民時蓋給農工住的,已經沿用好幾代,這裡有很多達利特移工。根據統計,斯里蘭卡境內的農工大約有80萬人之多。

 

 

Feb. 8 2017 - Hasina, 62 poses for a portrait with her grandchildren Lavish, 2 and Ayan Sefi, 4 at their home in Panipat, Haryana. Hasina and her family are Muslims living among other Hindu Dalits in a village located directly next to the highway.

哈希納(Hasina)和她兩個孫子拉維許(Lavish)(左)和艾亞(Aya)(右)住在印度哈里亞納邦的帕尼帕特一座達利特村莊裡,緊鄰高速公路,與其他種姓隔離。哈希納一家人都是達利特,但他們信奉伊斯蘭教。

 

 

Dec. 20 2016 - Sori Devi, 50 of Kolodohar, Jharkhand adorns a Godna, a term used across tribes in central and eastern India to refer to traditional tattoos. Of the low-caste Chamar group, this tattoo is inscribed among many women in the village and was traditionally used among low-caste women as a form of uglification to protect against the wandering eye of upper-caste men. “I’m feeling very vulnerable at this time” she expressed. Her husband has migrated, like many men in her village, for brick making work in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. “We are having a very horrible time because of the conditions we are facing.”

索莉・黛薇(Sori Devi)是印度賈坎德邦人,她身上有許多達利特的傳統刺青,這種刺青在當地村莊十分普遍,是較低種姓的女性故意用來醜化自己、避免較高種姓男性騷擾的做法。戴薇生活困苦,她的丈夫和村子裡很多男人一樣,都到北方邦與比哈邦的製磚廠打工賺錢。

 

 

Dec. 20 2016 - Nanpatiya Kumar, 41 plays with Jyoti, her neighbor’s baby in the village of Kolodohar, Jharkhand. Nanpatiya lost her husband 3 years ago due to breathing problems as she could not afford a doctor. “If my husband would have been here I wouldn’t worry so much, now I worry about the kids all the time. How will I get them married?” Despite Nanpatiya’s challenges, the women of Kolodohar have found comfort in one another with many of the men migrating for work to other states.

在印度賈坎德邦,41歲(2016)的南帕提亞・庫馬爾(Nanpatiya Kumar)抱著鄰居的小孩逗著玩。她的丈夫三年前因呼吸疾病過世,當時他們付不起醫藥費,就沒有看醫生。「如果今天我先生還在的話我就不會這麼煩惱了,現在我每天都擔心我小孩的未來,還有現在一家之主不在了,以後有誰可以完成他們的結婚大事。」儘管生活刻苦,村裡許多移工的妻女互助合作,成為彼此的依靠。

 

 

Feb. 9 2017 - Darshani, 41, of the Balmiki caste prays in her home in Bhapur, Haryana.“I bought the gold I wear for myself…and I own this house.” After two years of physical abuse by her drunken husband, Darshani left towards her mother’s village, took out a loan, and did agriculture work to build her own life and raise her two children. After thirteen years, her husband has pleaded for forgiveness, sobered up and supports their kids in striving for a better future.

印度哈里亞納邦的妲什妮(Darshani)在家中禱告。她年輕時遭酗酒的丈夫家暴,結婚兩年後帶著孩子搬回娘家,開始貸款,自己種田為生,獨力撫養小孩。過了整整13年後,她丈夫終於下決心痛改前非,請求她原諒,希望全家團圓,一起照顧兩人的孩子。

 

 

Ritu, 19, sits in her home in Bhapur, Haryana, India. Ritu is the highest educated Dalit girl in her village, currently in the second year of her BA. "My father is not interested in me studying, but my mother has supported me to go to school. Whatever anyone has said, she has not listened. That's why she is going out and working for us at a factory." Ritu's mother makes the equivalent of $94 USD per month working at a sewing factory and is the sole earner of the household.

19歲(2016年)的瑞圖(Ritu)坐在印度哈里亞納邦巴普爾村(Bhapur)的家中讓攝影師拍下肖像。她目前就讀大學二年級,是全村學歷最高的達利特女性。「我爸爸不想要我唸書,但我媽媽一直堅持讓我升學,別人怎麼說她就是不管,她每天到工廠上班賺錢,好讓我們可以讀大學。」瑞圖的父親臥病在家,無法工作,只有母親在紡織廠工作,月薪為94美金,約為臺幣2820元,是一家五口唯一的經濟來源。

 

 

Dec. 16 2016 - Children participate in the government midday meal scheme at Pathapur Division School in Odisha, India. Dalit children are on the right during mealtime so as not to pollute the food of the other children. A teacher from the school said “It’s very hard, we are doing our best, but what we see is very sad.”

印度奧里薩邦一間公立學校的學生正在吃營養午餐,校方將達利特學童分隔在右邊一排,他們必須帶自己的餐盤來學校,以免「污染其他人的食物」,這種普遍歧視達利特和少數民族的習俗,一位老師表示十分難過:「我們都盡力照顧好每個學生,可是,每次看到這些小朋友受到這樣待遇,真是令人傷心。」

 

 

Dec. 20 2016 - A dead cow appears on the ground in Kolodohar village in Jharkhand, India. Villagers who can invest in cattle face many challenges in maintaining their animal including cost of feed, adequate shelter, weather, illness and food poisoning. Though cows in India are considered holy, Dalit’s across India are the caste expected to dispose of cow carcasses and other dead animals, exposing them to many health issues.

印度賈坎德邦的鄉下,一頭牛橫死路上,屍體逐漸腐爛。在這裡養牛的村民除了飼料、建造牛舍的開銷之外,還得克服天候因素、傳染病還有食物中毒等等問題。雖然印度人普遍認為牛是神聖的動物,然而,地位最低的達利特,卻得負責清理牛屍和各種動物屍體,他們也因此暴露在各種傳染病的風險之下。

 

 

Ramasamy Kaliyamma, 80 stands in her outdoor kitchen on Alandara estate in Sri Lanka. Ramasamy and her husband, who is 82, have no children and live alone on the plantation. “Unless he goes to work we cannot eat…I have no children, there is no one to hold me up, I feel unsatisfied,” expressed Ramasamy. Her husband makes 2000 rupees per month just over $13 USD and must walk six hours each day to reach the plantation where he works as transportation is too costly for his salary. Kaliyamma began to cry as she described the flooding that came through her kitchen. “When the floods come, I can’t cook. I only need food.”

賈曼薩梅・卡莉耶瑪(Ramasamy Kaliyamma)住在斯里蘭卡中部的努瓦拉埃利雅區,她正在整理搭在戶外的簡易廚房。卡莉耶瑪已經高齡80歲(2016年),和丈夫住在一片農場上,兩人膝下無子。「只要我丈夫沒工作的話,我們馬上就沒飯吃了。我們沒有小孩,這點我一直很遺憾。」卡莉耶瑪說。她的丈夫每個月薪水200盧比,大約比13塊美金多一點,約臺幣390元,這種薪水他無法負擔通勤費用,只好每天走6個小時往返家裡和工作地點。一貧如洗的生活非常難熬,卡莉耶瑪回想以前農場淹水時的無助情景,忍不住掉淚:「每次淹水我就不能煮飯,非常痛苦。」

 

 

Dec. 7 2016 - Dalit women of the Doom caste fish in the Koshi river near the border of India and Nepal.

在印度與尼泊爾交界的戈西河(koshi river)上有許多達利特婦女在抓魚。

 

 

Dec. 16 2016 - Dalit women work in the rice fields near Harirajpur, Odisha. "We are involved in daily labor for only a few days a month and then we sit and wait. We have no work to support our families…Give me the work and I will do it," one woman said. These women were each paid 180 rupees for eight hours of labor, roughly $2.65 USD.

印度奧里薩邦的達利特婦女正在收割稻子。「我們一個月只有幾天有工作而已,其他時候只能枯等,沒工作就沒辦法養家糊口⋯⋯說真的,只要給我工作,我什麼都肯做。」一名婦女表示。這些婦女每天工作八小時的報酬為180盧比,相當於2.65美金,約為臺幣79元。

 

 

Nov. 29 2016 - Ram Kumar Bisunkya, 34 and Sanskari, 4 are pictured in their garden in Sheshnarayan, Nepal where they produce cauliflower, tomatoes, scallions, spinach, and coriander to be sold at the local market. Bisunkya joined a co-operative 3 years ago and operates the whole farm alone, waking up at 5am to water her plants. “I feel empowered because I have my own cash, sometimes even my husband asks to borrow money.”

蘭・庫馬爾・碧沙迦(Ran Kumar Bisunkya)和她四歲的兒子辛斯卡利(Sanskari)在尼泊爾加德滿都附近有一塊農地,種植花椰菜、番茄、蔥、菠菜、芫荽等作物,到當地市場賣菜。碧沙迦三年前加入一間農產合作社,獨立經營自己的農產,每天五點起床灌溉作物。她說:「我覺得自己可以獨當一面了,因為現在我已經有自己的資產,有時候連我先生都要跟我借錢。」

 

 

Dec. 1 2017 - Pampha Parkoti, 23 is pictured in the shelter her family built after the earthquake in 2015 in Dandathok, a small village east of Kathmandu. Pampha is a trained journalist, and active in Dalit and women’s rights. “My being from a community where you can’t get into a house and drink (water) from a spout, I always wondered what it would be like to be born into a Brahmin community and how things would have been different for me… I’ve always thought about that as I work to bring change…Because of this, I always dreamed about getting into social work and bringing about change. “ Parkoti migrated to Kathmandu to study where she fought all odds, including discrimination from a spinal cord injury and being kicked out of her apartment due to her caste.

潘發・巴柯蒂(Pampha Parkoti)和家人位於尼泊爾登達托克(Dandathok)的家中用餐,這座簡陋的房子是他們在2015年尼泊爾大地震後重建的。巴柯蒂是一名記者,向來關注達利特與婦女權益。「我從小在達利特家庭長大,我常常想像,如果我生在一個婆羅門家庭,又會是怎樣的人生⋯⋯所以我想參加社會運動,改善不公平的社會。」她到加德滿都去唸書時,雖然她脊錐受傷、又因達利特身份被趕出租屋處,仍然堅持完成學業。

 

 

Dec. 16 2016 - A girl from the Dalit village of Harirajpur chases a kite on the dried up Mahanadi riverbed in Odisha. This is the primary source of water for many villagers, who, living in one of India’s poorest states, face the brunt of the dry season by having to walk long distances to retrieve drinking water.

印度奧里薩邦的默哈納迪河在乾季時露出大片河床,附近的哈里拉吉浦村(Harirajpur)一名達利特女孩正在河床上追著風箏跑。這條河是附近居民最重要的水源,每年乾季時,村民都得走很長的路才有辦法取水。